Tuesday, November 17, 2015

AEther Salon: Firefighters (Edited Transcript)

[2015/11/15 14:01:28]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Welcome, everyone, to November's Aether Salon. We thank you for finding the time to attend, and hope you'll enjoy today's topic.
[2015/11/15 14:02:12]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Fraulein Bookworm Hienrichs has collected some fascinating information on Firefighting for us today.
[2015/11/15 14:02:18]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Before we begin, a few housekeeping items:
[2015/11/15 14:02:35]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 1) To ensure you can hear the speaker, stand or sit on the patterned carpet.
[2015/11/15 14:02:59]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 2) If you do not have a wearable chair and wish one, please contact me in IM.
[2015/11/15 14:03:13]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 3) Please remove all lag-feeding thingamajigs you might be wearing.
[2015/11/15 14:03:37]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 4) A tip jar is out for our speaker. Do please show your appreciation!
[2015/11/15 14:04:04]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 5) Any tips to help support the establishment will also be welcome - just click on one of the support signs or this handsome clank behind me.
[2015/11/15 14:04:25]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 6) If you're not a member of the AEther Salon group, there are signs that will let you join up. You'll be most heartily welcome.
[2015/11/15 14:04:50]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 7) Edited and unedited transcripts of these proceedings will be posted at aethersalon.blogspot.com.
[2015/11/15 14:05:06]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: And lastly,
[2015/11/15 14:05:08]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: 8) Tea and treats are set out - help yourself!
[2015/11/15 14:05:32]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Our speaker today is a long time resident of New Babbage.
[2015/11/15 14:06:20]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: She was one of the first members of the Ladies Fire Brigade of New Babbage, and is now a captain in its successor, the Babbage Fire Protection Brigade.
[2015/11/15 14:06:53]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: She has been with the Salon as one of its organisers since ownership was transferred, and has been a pillar of support.
[2015/11/15 14:07:17]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: I give you, Fraulein Fire-Captain Bookworm Hienrichs.
[2015/11/15 14:07:42]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Thank you all for coming.
[2015/11/15 14:08:16]  Bookworm Hienrichs: On the 29th of June, 1861, a funeral cortege made its way through the streets of London.  Now, the Londoners of Victorian times loved a large funeral, but this one was remarkable even for them.
[2015/11/15 14:08:31]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Shops had closed, and along the route, shutters and blinds were drawn to show respect.  Bells in every City church (except for St. Paul’s) rang out a funeral peal.
[2015/11/15 14:08:51]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The funeral procession stretched for a mile and a half, with thousands of policemen and brigade members joining the mourning family and friends.  It even included the private carriages of the Duke of Sutherland and the Earl of Caithness - and at a time when sending just the empty carriage was considered a significant mark of respect, the Duke and the Earl were actually in them.
[2015/11/15 14:09:10]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Thousands upon thousands of bystanders lined the streets, pressing in so close that it took the procession three hours to travel four miles to Abney Park Cemetery.
[2015/11/15 14:09:33]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Who was this man being honored with such a public outpouring of mourning and respect?  James Braidwood.  A firefighter.  What had he done to earn all this?  Well… we’ll get to that.
[2015/11/15 14:10:01]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The history of organized firefighting really starts with the ancient Romans.  Marcus Licinius Crassus formed the first fire brigade in Rome, some 500 men strong.
[2015/11/15 14:10:16]  Bookworm Hienrichs: They would rush to the scene of a fire… but upon arrival, would refuse to do anything until the building owner paid what they demanded.  If he didn’t, they’d simply leave the building to burn to the ground, and Crassus would offer to buy it at a fraction of its former value.
[2015/11/15 14:10:56]  Bookworm Hienrichs: During the time of Nero, a group called the Vigiles was created.  Partly, they were night watchmen, stationed in small barracks around the city and hauling off nocturnal miscreants, whether cut-throats, or simply drunken party-goers getting too rambunctious.
[2015/11/15 14:11:10]  Bookworm Hienrichs: However, the main job of the Vigiles was to fight fires.  Most Roman buildings were too flammable for traditional bucket-chains to do much good, so they usually didn’t try that.
[2015/11/15 14:11:21]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Their job was to assess the direction and speed of the fire’s spread, and to knock down the buildings in the way, in order to contain the fire.  They had trained specialists able to rip off roofs, flatten walls, and drag anything flammable out of the way of the fire with great speed.
[2015/11/15 14:11:37]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Of course, the owners of the buildings that were torn down seldom agreed with the Vigiles that it was necessary, and so their efforts were not often met with much appreciation.
[2015/11/15 14:11:57]  Bookworm Hienrichs: (And those of you who think the New Babbage Fire Brigade doesn’t have the best of records in fighting fires, at least we manage to contain them to one building without doing this!)
[2015/11/15 14:12:02]  Bookworm Hienrichs: grins.
[2015/11/15 14:12:55]  Bookworm Hienrichs: We all know, of course, about the Great Fire of London in 1666, which destroyed so much of the city.  Afterwards, fire insurance brigades were developed to deal with future fires.
[2015/11/15 14:13:14]  Bookworm Hienrichs: People would pay an insurance company for protection against damage - and fire damage was certainly the most common.  The insurance companies used the significant profits from these premiums to establish their own fire brigades.
[2015/11/15 14:13:36]  Bookworm Hienrichs: A firemark, such as the one seen behind me, would be placed on an insured building, showing (and advertising for) which company insured it.  When an alarm of fire was raised, any nearby insurance fire brigades would rush to the scene.
[2015/11/15 14:14:20]  Bookworm Hienrichs: waits a minute for it to rez for everyone...
[2015/11/15 14:14:55]  Bookworm Hienrichs: This was the firemark for one of the first insurance fire brigades.
[2015/11/15 14:15:49]  Bookworm Hienrichs: On arrival, the brigade would look for the firemark to see which company had insured it.  If they didn’t see their company’s firemark, they simply left it to burn - thus taking a page out of Crassus’ book.
[2015/11/15 14:16:25]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Distilleries also often maintained their own private fire brigade, as did other manufacturers that dealt with flammable goods.  But again, these were, in the main, concerned only with their own properties.
[2015/11/15 14:16:44]  Bookworm Hienrichs: And now, we come to James Braidwood.  He was born in 1800 in Edinburgh, and joined his father’s building firm as an apprentice; what he learned about construction during that time would stand him in good stead in his later work.
[2015/11/15 14:17:00]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In 1824, Edinburgh, in response to a series of fires, decided to establish the world’s first municipal fire brigade.  Tapped to head this organization was none other than James Braidwood.  He was only 23 years old, but had an obvious passion for the work, and a keen mind for how to organize this new brigade.
[2015/11/15 14:17:16]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Unfortunately, just two months after it was first established, the brigade had to face a massive fire - the Great Fire of Edinburgh - which burned for four days and destroyed a number of large buildings, as well as 400 homes
[2015/11/15 14:17:40]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Braidwood and his new organization came under a lot of heat at first (yes, pun intended), but the subsequent inquiry into the fire cleared them completely, showing that the disaster had been magnified by the meddling of public officials and ‘gentlemen of importance’ who thought they were in command, and by the great lack of access to water-cocks (valves and pipes connected to the water mains).
[2015/11/15 14:18:28]  Bookworm Hienrichs: After this, Braidwood took the Brigade well in hand.  One of the main things that separated the municipal brigade from the private ones is that Braidwood and his men trained regularly  - usually early in the morning, to avoid congesting the streets and to lessen interference with the firemen’s regular jobs.
[2015/11/15 14:18:43]  Bookworm Hienrichs: For, indeed, this was a second job for the firefighters.  Braidwood focused his recruiting efforts on young men from professions that would dovetail well with firefighting, such as slaters, masons, carpenters, plumbers, and smiths.
[2015/11/15 14:19:11]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Braidwood also turned attention to inventing and improving equipment, such as fire escapes and a rudimentary breathing apparatus, and studied each fire they fought closely, looking for ways to improve tactics.
[2015/11/15 14:19:23]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In 1830, he published ‘On the Construction of Fire-Engines and Apparatus, the Training of Firemen, and the Method of Proceeding in Case of Fire.’  In it, he described everything he’d learned about fighting fires, including:
[2015/11/15 14:19:33]  Bookworm Hienrichs: --The best type of engine for most use, and its construction and operation
[2015/11/15 14:19:42]  Bookworm Hienrichs: --The tools and equipment that should be with each engine (hoses, cord, wrenches for fire-cocks, rope, chain, ladders, equipment for portable fire escapes)
[2015/11/15 14:19:53]  Bookworm Hienrichs: --How to supply the fire engines with water, especially if water-cocks are not nearby.  This included hose-and-bucket chain, using gutters and drainage ditches, tapping ponds or rivers, and even breaking into sewer mains.
[2015/11/15 14:20:07]  Bookworm Hienrichs: (Though he didn’t recommend that last unless absolutely necessary.  “For the purpose of procuring water to extinguish a fire, I had at one time occasion to open a common-sewer, in which, with the usual impurities, the waste from a gas-manufactory was intermixed, and the stench in the premises where the fire had been extinguished by this water, was for some time after very disagreeable.”)
[2015/11/15 14:20:28]  Bookworm Hienrichs: loves his mastery of understatement.
[2015/11/15 14:20:47]  Bookworm Hienrichs: --Drilling techniques for training the firefighters, including providing time and space for physical fitness training
[2015/11/15 14:21:07]  Bookworm Hienrichs: --Detailed tactics for fighting fires and rescuing people.  He was the first to advocate for actually entering a burning building to fight the seat of a fire.  Many of these basic tactics are still in use even in the time of our typists.
[2015/11/15 14:21:23]  Bookworm Hienrichs: With such efforts, it wasn’t long before the Edinburgh municipal fire brigade was the most efficient in the world.
[2015/11/15 14:21:54]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In 1833, with demand for their services increasing, ten private fire brigades in London combined forces to form the London Fire Engine Establishment (LFEE).
[2015/11/15 14:22:03]  Bookworm Hienrichs: James Braidwood was named to head it, becoming London’s first Fire Chief.  He oversaw 13 fire stations, with a total of 80 firefighters.
[2015/11/15 14:22:47]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Now for a bit on the common firefighting equipment.
[2015/11/15 14:23:17]  Bookworm Hienrichs: ((And I apologize for this section - I'm under the weather this weekend, so it isn't as polished as I'd've liked it. *wry grin*))
[2015/11/15 14:23:34]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Manual fire pumps had been in use since the 16th century, but these early pumps were only force pumps, in which water was drawn into a cylinder on the upstroke of a piston, and discharged through an outlet pipe on the downstroke.
[2015/11/15 14:23:54]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In the most common design, the pump was housed in a cistern, which was filled by men in a bucket chain.  The discharged water was directed onto the fire through a swivelling pipe on top, with four or five men handling the lever.
[2015/11/15 14:24:11]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In the 1600s, German inventor Hans Haustch invented a suction-and-force pump, which could discharge water on during both pumping actions of the piston.  While this was an improvement, it still didn’t discharge the water with much force, meaning the manual pump had to be parked very close to the fire.
[2015/11/15 14:25:03]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In 1672, Dutch inventor Jan Van der Heyden developed the fire hose.  Made of leather and coupled with brass fittings, these hoses allowed firefighters to deliver water with more force, making their efforts much more effective.
[2015/11/15 14:25:23]  Bookworm Hienrichs: An improved engine, developed in 1721, was manned by four to twelve men, and could deliver up to 160 gallons per minute to a distance of up to 120 feet.  As the size and power of the pumps increased, it became more and more common for the engines to be pulled by horses, instead of men.
[2015/11/15 14:25:32]  Jimmy Branagh: Wos they called "Hosers"?
[2015/11/15 14:25:46]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Only in Canada, Jimmy.
[2015/11/15 14:25:49]  Bookworm Hienrichs: grins.
[2015/11/15 14:25:50]  Jimmy Branagh: Ahhh
[2015/11/15 14:25:55]  Jimmy Branagh: nods
[2015/11/15 14:25:59]  Dr. Henry Jekyll: People were pulling engines around before horses?
[2015/11/15 14:26:05]  Bookworm Hienrichs: They were.
[2015/11/15 14:26:26]  Bookworm Hienrichs: It was a while before the engines were heavy enough to necessiate being pulled by horses.
[2015/11/15 14:26:28]  Dr. Henry Jekyll: That sounds like a lot of strain on the men.
[2015/11/15 14:26:34]  Bookworm Hienrichs: nods.
[2015/11/15 14:26:39]  Bookworm Hienrichs: That, and the pumping itself.
[2015/11/15 14:26:47]  Lady Sumoku: Hence all the exercising
[2015/11/15 14:26:56]  Bookworm Hienrichs: So actually, they often recruited male bystanders to help with the pumping.
[2015/11/15 14:27:59]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In 1829, John Braithewaite and John Ericsson build the first steam fire engine in London.  Curiously enough, James Braidwood wasn’t keen on steam power, so the LFEE didn’t actually get its first steam engine until 1860.
[2015/11/15 14:28:24]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The Royal Society for the Protection of Life from Fire was formed in 1828 as an organization to help people escape from burning buildings by providing ladders.
[2015/11/15 14:28:33]  Bookworm Hienrichs: These ladders were stored in churchyards during the day, and placed on street corners during the night, leaned against streetlamp posts.
[2015/11/15 14:28:42]  Bookworm Hienrichs: (Something to add to some of ours, perhaps?)
[2015/11/15 14:28:52]  Bookworm Hienrichs: grins.
[2015/11/15 14:29:04]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Some models had canvas chutes, so ladies could slide down without showing their ankles.  (Or knees. *grin*)
[2015/11/15 14:29:59]  Bookworm Hienrichs: James Braidwood developed a fire escape system consisting of a chain ladder and canvas cradle.  This could brought up to the roof by firefighters, if possible, and be secured to the roof, with the firefighters using the ladder to reach a window where people were, and then let them down via the canvas cradle, which was attached to a single chain.
[2015/11/15 14:30:18]  Bookworm Hienrichs: If it wasn’t possible, or safe, to get onto the roof, they used a large crossbow to shoot a rope over the roof to others waiting on the other side of the building.  Those firefighters would then pull the rope over, which drew over first a single chain, and then the chain ladder.
[2015/11/15 14:31:17]  Bookworm Hienrichs: In the late afternoon of the 22nd of June, 1861, workers were leaving for the day from the row of warehouses that lined the river Thames near London Bridge.  One of these, Scovill’s Warehouse, was storing a variety of goods, including hemp, saltpetre, tallow, cotton, rice, sugar, tea, and spices.
[2015/11/15 14:31:40]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Somehow, a fire started in the counting house.  Within minutes, thanks to a combination of the flammable items stored, and the fact that the iron fire doors in the warehouses had been left open, the fire spread to nearby buildings, feeding on more highly flammable materials.  Finally, the fire reached Chamberlain’s Wharf, which traded in sulphur, tallow, saltpetre, jute, oils, and paints.
[2015/11/15 14:32:27]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Mr. Hodges, the owner of a distillery nearby, had started his private fire brigade on attempting to control the blaze.  Other private brigades joined him, followed by the official brigade, and James Braidwood.
[2015/11/15 14:32:45]  Bookworm Hienrichs: There was little they could do, however.  The LFEE’s one floating fire engine had arrived, but the Thames was at low tide, and the water too shallow for its pumps to operate.  The river itself, too, was ablaze, as tallow and oil carried the fire into the river.  The burning oils also covered the surrounding streets to ankle depth
[2015/11/15 14:33:25]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The fire, by now, had engulfed the warehouses of eight companies.  The flames could be seen from fifteen miles away, with smoke rising high into the air.
[2015/11/15 14:33:35]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The various fire brigades worked desperately to try to prevent it from spreading further.  Braidwood was tireless in overseeing and encouraging all the firefighters.
[2015/11/15 14:33:49]  Bookworm Hienrichs: At about 7:30 that evening, he was seen by the wall of a warehouse behind Tooley Street, still working, but also handing out rations of brandy to his men.  Suddenly, there was a huge explosion behind the wall, and James Braidwood, with four or five others, were buried under fifteen feet of burning brickwork.
[2015/11/15 14:34:21]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The men of the LFEE continued on as they’d been trained by their fallen leader.  Still, the fire continued to spread, destroying the houses that fronted Tooley Street.
[2015/11/15 14:34:31]  Bookworm Hienrichs: More warehouses and granaries caught, as well as barges and schooners moored on the river.
[2015/11/15 14:34:45]  Bookworm Hienrichs: It wasn’t until 3:00 in the morning, ten hours after the fire had begun, that it was finally contained to one area - but it was quite a large area.  The fire stretched for 1000 feet from east to west, and 1000 feet inland from the Thames - over 11 acres of buildings completely razed.
[2015/11/15 14:35:35]  Bookworm Hienrichs: All through the evening, and even in the middle of the night, people gathered from all over London to watch it.  Sellers of beer, ginger-beer, fruit, cakes, and coffee gathered, and many of the nearby pubs stayed open all night.
[2015/11/15 14:36:07]  Bookworm Hienrichs: So I guess I shouldn’t be surprised at the spectators the New Babbage fires get, should I?
[2015/11/15 14:36:11]  Bookworm Hienrichs: grins.
[2015/11/15 14:36:58]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The fire continued to burst out at various points for days afterwards.  It was, in fact, just shy of three weeks before the fire was finally judged to be contained, though the ruins continued to smoulder long after that.
[2015/11/15 14:37:56]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The body of James Braidwood was located three days after his death.  One of the fire engineers cut off the epaulettes and buttons, giving them to the foremen of the fire service.
[2015/11/15 14:38:04]  Bookworm Hienrichs: And thus it was, on the 29th, that we come to his funeral, and the public response to this man who had done so much to keep the city safe.
[2015/11/15 14:38:47]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Of course, that’s not the end of the story.  In 1862, partially in response to the Tooley Street fire, the insurance companies told the government that they were no longer willing to be responsible for fire protection.
[2015/11/15 14:39:01]  Bookworm Hienrichs: London needed its own municipal fire brigade.
[2015/11/15 14:39:13]  Bookworm Hienrichs: However, the wheels of bureaucracy grind slowly, so it wasn’t until 1865 that the Metropolitan Fire Brigade act was passed, with the organization coming into being on January 1st, 1866, under the leadership of Eyre Massey Shaw, who had taken over the leadership of the LFEE after Braidwood’s death.
[2015/11/15 14:39:43]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Shaw was also an efficient and influential leader for the fire brigade.  He expanded the use of steam fire engines, which could pump as much as 300 gallons of water a minute.
[2015/11/15 14:40:15]  Bookworm Hienrichs: He had new fire stations built throughout the city, and connected them with telegraph communication.
[2015/11/15 14:40:28]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The brass or silver helmet was introduced to the firefighter’s uniform by him.
[2015/11/15 14:40:33]  Bookworm Hienrichs: puts on her own.
[2015/11/15 14:40:55]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Shaw was also a friend of the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), who actually kept a fire brigade uniform at one of the fire stations for his own use.
[2015/11/15 14:41:10]  Dr. Henry Jekyll (nyanka.jinx): Remind me what the helmet was for, exactly?
[2015/11/15 14:41:18]  Bookworm Hienrichs: And yes, apparently, the Prince of Wales did actually use it from time to time.
[2015/11/15 14:41:25]  Prof. Woodsheart: Protecting the head methinks?
[2015/11/15 14:41:28]  Myrtil Igaly: protection from falling stuff?
[2015/11/15 14:41:43]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Yes, from falling debris, and also probably from sparks flying.
[2015/11/15 14:42:24]  Bookworm Hienrichs: This overview certainly doesn’t cover everything about Victorian-era firefighting.  If you want to learn more, these are a few sites that were very helpful for me:
[2015/11/15 14:42:34]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The London Fire Brigade’s history page
[2015/11/15 14:42:46]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Google Book’s copy of ‘An Illustrated History of Fire Engines,’ by Roger Mardon.
[2015/11/15 14:42:57]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Google Book’s copy of Braidwood’s ‘On the Construction of Fire-Engines and Apparatus.
[2015/11/15 14:43:21]  Bookworm Hienrichs: I hope you enjoyed this dip into the world of Victorian firefighting.
[2015/11/15 14:43:23]  Bookworm Hienrichs: smiles.
[2015/11/15 14:43:23]  Dee Wells Dagger: Excellent, Book. Very well done
[2015/11/15 14:43:28]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:43:32]  Jimmy Branagh: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:43:33]  Zantabraxus: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:43:36]  Zantabraxus: Wonderful
[2015/11/15 14:43:36]  Eilidh McCullough: ♩♪♫♬  APPAWS! ♩♪♫♬
[2015/11/15 14:43:37]  Stereo Nacht:  `*.¸.*´ APPLAUSE `*.¸.*´APPLAUSE `*.¸.*´
[2015/11/15 14:43:38]  Myrtil Igaly: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:43:39]  Jimmy Branagh: Awesome Miss Book!
[2015/11/15 14:43:40]  Lady Sumoku: cheers loudly
[2015/11/15 14:43:41]  Elleon Bergamasco: very informative!!
[2015/11/15 14:43:46]  Wulfriðe Blitzen: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:43:48]  Prof: Well done Miss Book
[2015/11/15 14:43:49]  Myrtil Igaly: inspiring!
[2015/11/15 14:43:51]  Prof: appoards
[2015/11/15 14:43:53]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Does anyone have any questions for our excellent speaker?
[2015/11/15 14:43:56]  Szirka: Claps
[2015/11/15 14:43:57]  Prof (professor.woodsheart): applauds even
[2015/11/15 14:43:59]  Vaqiri: claps.
[2015/11/15 14:44:02]  Ceejay Writer: Very good!  I enjoyed this so much.
[2015/11/15 14:44:03]  Dr. Henry Jekyll: That was a wonderful session, Miss Heinrichs.
[2015/11/15 14:44:08]  Prof: puts his hand up
[2015/11/15 14:44:12]  Samantha Linnaeus: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:44:23]  Samantha Linnaeus: "That was extremely interesting."
[2015/11/15 14:44:25]  Theta Sigma: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:44:32]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Yes, professor?
[2015/11/15 14:44:52]  Prof: Not a question, but does Miss Book know that the French term for fireman 'Pompier' literally means 'pumper'?
[2015/11/15 14:45:05]  Bookworm Hienrichs: I did see, that, actually.
[2015/11/15 14:45:21]  Prof: Linking them with the past you have so eloquently described
[2015/11/15 14:45:43]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The French had the Compagnie des gardes-pompes, which translates as Companies of Pump Guards.
[2015/11/15 14:45:49]  Prof: nods..
[2015/11/15 14:45:53]  Samantha Linnaeus: slips a small notebook from her skirt and jots a note
[2015/11/15 14:45:58]  Prof: Great talk, thank you..
[2015/11/15 14:46:03]  Elleon Bergamasco: I think it's time to install some sort of fire protection in the museum
[2015/11/15 14:46:08]  Bookworm Hienrichs: They were, I believe, more military in nature, rather than municipal.
[2015/11/15 14:46:21]  Bookworm Hienrichs: An excellent idea, Miss Elleon.
[2015/11/15 14:46:23]  Prof: Yes, which is why they parade carrying rifles today..
[2015/11/15 14:46:34]  OldeSoul Eldemar: very informative Frau Hienrichs
[2015/11/15 14:46:46]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Anyone else?
[2015/11/15 14:47:06]  Samantha Linnaeus: "Thank you for the lecture."
[2015/11/15 14:47:09]  Prof: applauds once more..
[2015/11/15 14:47:39]  Princess Selena: applauds "marvelous research!  thank you for sharing it with us!"
[2015/11/15 14:47:59]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Fraulein Bookworm, did the principles of tearing down combustible structures persist?
[2015/11/15 14:48:29]  Ceejay Writer: Baron, rather like clear cutting a forest, or so it reminids me of
[2015/11/15 14:48:41]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Fire lines, ja.
[2015/11/15 14:48:55]  Bookworm Hienrichs: I'm sure Miss Jed knows more than I do on that, Baron, but I doubt it's applied much to buildings today.
[2015/11/15 14:49:13]  Bookworm Hienrichs: The technology has become so much better.
[2015/11/15 14:54:11]  Myrtil Igaly: Great talk Miss Book!
[2015/11/15 14:54:11]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: applauds
[2015/11/15 14:54:19]  Stereo Nacht: Thank you Ms. Hienrichs!
[2015/11/15 14:54:24]  Jimmy Branagh: applauds once again
[2015/11/15 14:54:28]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Thank you all for coming!
[2015/11/15 14:54:29]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: I wil be picking up the tip jar in about 10 minutes.
[2015/11/15 14:54:32]  Stereo Nacht: curtsies
[2015/11/15 14:54:50]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Anyone who might wish to support the Salon itself, the airship clank accepts donations.
[2015/11/15 14:54:51]  Ceejay Writer: Thank you SO much for all your research, Bookworm.
[2015/11/15 14:55:02]  Zantabraxus: A splendid presentation.
[2015/11/15 14:56:41]  Baron Klaus Wulfenbach: Vielen dank, Fraulein Bookworm, for all your work when you are feeling poorly. You have done very well.
[2015/11/15 14:56:50]  Bookworm Hienrichs: Thank you, Baron.
[2015/11/15 14:56:52]  Elleon Bergamasco: thank you so much for the wonderful talk Book, such a treat for us all
[2015/11/15 14:56:54]  Lady Sumoku: agrees
[2015/11/15 14:57:08]  Wulfriðe Blitzen: nods
[2015/11/15 14:57:16]  Zantabraxus: thinks so too.
[2015/11/15 14:57:28]  Dr. Henry Jekyll: Thank you for the lecture, Miss Heinrichs.
[2015/11/15 14:57:41]  Samantha Linnaeus: curtsies to Book, "It was a fascinating lecture -- thank you."

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